Lipid metabolism disorders and type of lipids


Lipid metabolism disorders

Lipid metabolism disorders (including inborn errors of lipid metabolism) are illnesses where trouble occurs in breaking down or synthesizing fats (or fat-like substances). Lipid metabolism disorders are associated with an increase in the concentrations of plasma lipids in the blood such as LDL cholesterol, VLDL, and triglycerides which most commonly lead to cardiovascular diseases. A good deal of the time these disorders are hereditary, meaning it's a condition that is passed along from parent to child through their genes.Gaucher's disease (types I, II, and III), Niemann–Pick disease, Tay–Sachs disease, and Fabry's disease are all diseases where those afflicted can have a disorder of their body's lipid metabolism. Rarer diseases concerning a disorder of the lipid metabolism are sitosterolemia, Wolman's disease, Refsum's disease, and cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis.

Types of lipids

The types of lipids involved in lipid metabolism include:

Membrane lipids:

Phospholipids: Phospholipids are a major component of the lipid bilayer of the cell membrane and are found in many parts of the body.

Sphingolipids: Sphingolipids are mostly found in the cell membrane of neural tissue.

Glycolipids: The main role of glycolipids is to maintain lipid bilayer stability and facilitate cell recognition.

Glycerophospholipids: Neural tissue (including the brain) contains high amounts of glycerophospholipids.

Other types of lipids:

Cholesterols: Cholesterols are the main precursors for different hormones in our body such as progesterone and testosterone. The main function of cholesterol is controlling the cell membrane fluidity.

Steroid: see also steroidogenesis: Steroids are one of the important cell signalling molecules.

Triacylglycerols (fats): see also lipolysis and lipogenesis: Triacylglycerides are the major form of energy storage in human body.

Fatty acids: see also fatty acid metabolism: Fatty acids are one of the precursors used for lipid membrane and cholesterol biosynthesis. They are also used for energy.

Bile salts: Bile salts are secreted from liver and they facilitate lipid digestion in the small intestine.

Eicosanoids: Eicosanoids are made from fatty acids in the body and they are used for cell signaling.

Ketone bodies: Ketone bodies are made from fatty acids in the liver. Their function is to produce energy during periods of starvation or low food intake.

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