Plant Proteomics are Protein kinases lacking Arg in the catalytic loop HxD motif (i.e., non-RD kinases) are associated with innate immune signaling across kingdoms. Phosphorylation activates plant immune receptor kinases (RKs), but the mechanistic details of activation are limited. Using the non-RD immune (EFR) Understanding all levels that regulate adaptive mechanisms and the resilience of crop plants in the context of climate changes is absolutely essential to reach significant achievements in genomics-driven breeding of major crops for high productivity and stress tolerance. A new pattern of frequently occurring extreme weather events has already been taking a toll on agricultural production systems. In addition to increasing amount of genomic information available for both model and non-model plants, the parallel development of bioinformatics techniques and analytical instrumentation makes proteomics an essential approach to reveal major signaling and biochemical pathways underlying plant life cycle, interaction with the environment, and responses to abiotic and biotic stresses. High-throughput proteomic studies have gone beyond simple identification of individual proteins to quantitative profiling, analysis of dynamic post-translational modifications (PTMs), subcellular localization and compartmentalization, protein complexes, signaling pathways, and protein–protein interactions . Growing in the field or cultivated in the laboratory, plant development and productivity are inevitably controlled by various extreme environmental factors such as drought, heat, salinity, cold, or pathogen infection, which may delay or induce seed germination, reduce seedling growth, and decrease crop yields. Proteomics studies can substantially contribute to revealing virtually every aspect of cellular function in plant stress responses, unraveling possible relationships between protein abundance and/or modification and plant stress tolerance. An increasing number of studies have been discussing the contribution of proteomics to deeper insights into the molecular mechanisms of plant responses to stresses and signaling pathways linking changes in protein expression to cellular metabolic events, such as studies using model plants Arabidopsis , Attributed to the improvement in diverse proteomic technology platforms that combined classical two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) gel-based techniques with mass spectrometry (MS)-based quantitative approaches as well as the accessibility of protein databases of various plant species, major monocotyledonous cereals and dicotyledonous legumes (e.g., maize, wheat, barley, soybeans etc.) have been widely used to study quantitative changes in protein abundance related to different abiotic stresses . In the agricultural environment crop plants are subject to a complex set of abiotic and biotic stresses. In addition to studying effects of various stresses applied individually under laboratory controlled conditions, recent evidence shows that simultaneous occurrence of multiple stresses affecting crop growth, yield and physiological traits can cause plants to activate intricate metabolic pathways involved in specific programming of gene expression that uniquely respond to different combinations of stresses. Several different signaling pathways involved in multiple stress-responding mechanisms have been revealed in transcriptome, metabolome, and proteome analysis of various crop plants subjected to different stress combinations, suggesting a complex regulatory network orchestrated by hormone signals, transcription factors, antioxidants, kinase cascades, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and osmolyte synthesis.
Fundamentally, crop growth depends on efficient production of energy and nutritional compounds regulated through different organs, which are equipped with various organelles and organ-specific sets of cytosolic proteins, hormones and metabolites. The responses of plant cells to abiotic stresses vary in different organs.